Perfect Ways to Write Imperfect Characters

You know when you’re reading a book and it’s just not grabbing your interest the way it should? The title was quirky, original, eye-catching, enticing you to stop at that exact place in the bookshop or library and pull it off the shelf. The blurb promised everything you like best in a book, and a quick flick through the pages revealed crisp, engaging prose.

If you’re anything like me, starting to read a new book is a really big deal. You’re ready to put your own life and concerns aside for an hour or two and enmesh yourself in the world between the covers of the book.

I don’t quite crack out the champagne and fireworks to herald the latest book, but I do like to wait until I have a couple of hours free for myself, chores done, phone on silent, and settle down in my favourite chair with a coffee or a glass of wine, or a warm shady spot in the garden, and get to know who is on the pages.

perfectpin1So what happens when it turns out the blurb is the best you’re going to get? What’s on the cover was just dallying with you? Well, as a youngster I’d plough on for a few chapters, trusting it would improve in the next paragraph, on the next page, by the next chapter… I was nothing if not optimistic.

I’m also a realist, and I learned fast that while some books you might not be in the right mood to read at that moment, there are also those that you’ll never be in the right mood. If I get to the end of the first chapter and I’m wondering what’s on the TV tonight, or if there is any wet paint anywhere that needs an observer while it dries, then back to the library that book goes.

There are too many books I want to read to waste time on those that fail to follow through on their promise.

But what is it that makes readers discard books after a few pages? If you’re a writer, it’s a crucial question. You can’t and won’t please every reader, but what is it about a novel or short fiction that’s most likely to make wet paint a fascinating alternative?

For me, it’s when I just don’t care.  The author might have delivered an inventive plot, laden with conflict and a well-paced story arc, but if they haven’t written characters I can feel a connection to, the rest is just pretty wallpaper.

And if I don’t, it usually comes down to one or two reasons – they are flat and one-dimensional like paper dolls, and/or they have little or no authentic motivation to underpin their actions.

As a reader, I want to care about the characters. Do I have to like them? No, but I do need to connect with them, whether that be through empathising with a situation they face, or by understanding why they might make the choices they do. As a writer, how can you show me why I should care about your characters?

There are plenty of articles and help-books that will explain must-include points for writing authentic characters. They often come down to the same three or four crucial points:

Motivation – what essence or quality underpins their choices and actions. It can often be summed up in one word or concept – greed, loneliness, grief, revenge, duty, love.

Goals – what they want to achieve: the doctor looking for a cure to a rare disease, the swimmer training for the Olympics, the orphan searching for a permanent home.

Purpose – why they want to achieve it: the doctor wants to ensure nobody else dies in the same pain as her husband did, the swimmer wants to show his doubting, undermining family that he can achieve something extraordinary, the orphan wants to stop her siblings being separated and shuffled between foster homes.

Personality – what they are like, how they interact with others, respond to events, what they think. Make them real. If a character is not believable, it’s a big turn-off. Give them a range of personality traits. Give them quirks, fears, show them being hurt, and hurting others – and how they behave in reaction.

Flaws – what negative traits do they have (or, if writing a villain, what positive traits – to offset all the bad!) that will (a) make them a believable, realistic character and (b) cause conflict or diversions in the story that they will need to overcome to reach their goals.


If you are having trouble creating convincing, fully-fledged characters, chances are the problem is because one of these five elements has been neglected. In this post, I want to show how reading other novels can help us learn about character development.

picoult1A Spark of Light
by Jodi Picoult

Jodi Picoult’s most recent novel is based in a Mississippi abortion clinic and follows the stories of several strangers whose lives become entwined when a gunman holds them hostage in the clinic. Jodi Picoult writes with multiple points of view, which allows her to highlight differing opinions and experiences while exploring controversial themes in her novels. Each one of her characters are fully-developed and believable. I’m going to focus on Janine:

Motivation – Guilt
Goal – to spy on the clinic staff in the hope of catching them performing illegal acts
Purpose – to close the clinic down and stop abortions in the State.
Personality – passionate, determined, confused, information-gatherer, kind, serious, brave, single-minded…
Flaw – telling lies. She lies to the police, to the other women in the clinic, to her co-protestors, and most of all, to herself.

When you’ve put a list like this together, have a look for all the ways the writer reveals these elements. Where do they use the character’s inner thoughts, where do they use dialogue and/or interactions between characters, where do they use actions? For example, Janine’s flaw of telling lies is revealed in the first scene where the reader meets her, and is shown via dialogue.

It’s a simple, white lie – she wants to go home, but the paramedic checking her over wants to keep her in for observation. Asked if there is someone for her to go home to, she says there is. Most readers will empathise with Janine and imagine themselves telling the same lie, in the same circumstances.

But in the next sentence, a cop tells Janine before she can go home, she has to go with him to the station to give a statement. Through a combination of narrative voice, telling the reader Janine panicked, and through Janine’s inner thoughts Did they know about her? Did she have to tell them? was it like going to court, and swearing on a bible? Or could she just be, for a little longer, someone who deserved sympathy? Jodi Picoult infers that there is another lie, a larger, more disturbing lie yet to be revealed. The inference excites the reader’s curiosity, but the withheld revelation allows them to suspend their judgement on Janine’s behaviour.

Reading/Writing excercise

perfect waysChoose one character in a book you’ve read.

Write down one word/concept to describe their motivation.

Write down their immediate/overall goal – what they want to do

Write down their purpose – why they want to do it

Write down several of their character traits

Write down their character flaw/ weakness

Review how the author demonstrates each point on your list

Repeat with other characters, other authors

Reading/ Writing Practice

Decide – villain or hero

Select a few relevant character traits, including  the important, humanising flaw or positive trait

Write brief scenes for each one, using different techniques – narrative voice, character’s inner thoughts, action, and dialogue, how they respond to external events/pressures


Sometimes, we can be too close and too familiar with our own work to easily solve difficulties within it. Step back, and approach the problem by reading other authors and doing exercises like these. You won’t regret it!






37 thoughts on “Perfect Ways to Write Imperfect Characters

  1. This is such a well thought out article! It is a true that it can ruin a book if the characters aren’t relatable. I will definitely keep this in mind if I ever write an article

    Liked by 1 person

  2. By the way, I LOVE Jodi Picoult! I have this problem where I can’t put a book away until I finish it because I just HAVE to know. There’s only been a few books that have been terrible enough for me to walk away from.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. I love this article! It’s so true. Characters really make all the difference in a book. If I can’t connect with them, it makes it so much harder to read it. And, as someone who has tried to write her own stories, this article is very helpful for me to keep in mind. I will definitely be reading this again. Wonderful work!

    Liked by 1 person

  4. You just made me realize how complicated it is to write/create which seems so simple if you are the one reading or watching them.. Haha! An art really.

    Liked by 1 person

  5. Those are great tips and you just explained why I’m not into the book I’ve been trying to read with the optimistic thought that is will get better. On the other hand, I love Jodi Picoult and will definitely be reading her new book soon since I’ve read pretty much everything else she’s written.

    Liked by 1 person

  6. Writing characters is always something I have really struggled with which is why I tend to stick to non fiction platforms more often now when participating in creative writing. I am definitely going to take your suggestions and see what I can come up with! Thanks for the great post!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. I’m glad it’s useful for you. Soon I’ll be writing a post on how to get to know your characters better – their likes, dislikes, foibles etc. So keep an eye out for that too!


  7. What a great and helpful article! I had never thought about breaking my writing down like that, but it’s really a great exercise for writers to do. Thanks for the wonderful tips!

    Liked by 1 person

  8. I wish more writers thought more about their characters before writing, as I’ve read quite a few books that I’ve just not been able to get into because the characters seem flat and boring. I tend to stick with the same authors that I like, because I know what I’m getting.

    Liked by 1 person

  9. I wish more writers thought more about their characters before writing, as I’ve read quite a few books that I’ve just not been able to get into because the characters seem flat and boring. I tend to stick with the same authors that I like, because I know what I’m getting.

    Liked by 1 person

  10. great tips and a great exercise to think about the next time are either lovable or am meh about a book. Normally, I write nonfiction, but I do dream of diving into a what would hopefully be a good story someday. This is a keeper.

    Liked by 1 person

  11. Very impressive how you are able to break down the components of good character writing. This is an excellent article on how to write. I never really gave it this level of thought, but now I will pay more attention. Thanks for the insight.

    Liked by 1 person

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